A new pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill development: A pilot study

Abstract

Teachers and practitioners working with younger children must conduct regular assessments to gather evidence about the student’s level of achievement in fundamental movement skill (FMS) development (e.g., skipping, throwing, etc.). However, assessment tools designed to test FMSs require teachers to videotape performances for later analysis. This practice poses a problem for the teacher considering the time available for assessment and the number of students per class. This study aimed to evaluate rater-expert agreement for a new method of assessing the qualitative aspects of FMS competence in children by comparing agreement between an expert rater and 29 trained undergraduate kinesiology students. The method proposed in this study will allow teachers to conduct live assessments without the need to videotape students. Participants were 29 undergraduate students majoring in Kinesiology. Participants used adapted versions of validated developmental sequences to classify 24 videos of children performing the skills of hopping and striking with a bat. Fundamental movement skill developmental sequences are comprised of pictorial configurations and written performance criteria of the skill. During training, participants relied on both the pictorial configurations and the written performance criteria to classify 8 videos per skill; while during testing, participants relied only on the pictorial configurations to classify 12 videos per each skill. During training, participants received feedback from the test administrator. Subjects were tested 48 hours after the training session with no feedback given. Participant’s ratings were compared with those of an expert rater. Agreement was reported as percentage of agreement and weighted kappa (Fleiss, 1981). The statistical package SPSS 23.0 was used for data analysis. Agreement was considered “good” (Altman, 1991) for hopping (kw=.802, SE= .022) and batting (kw=.756, SE= .028). This study sets the foundation for the development of a new observation-based instrument to assess fundamental movement skill proficiency. Future studies will focus in establishing inter and intra-rater reliability for hopping and batting as well as assess rater-expert agreement for other locomotor and object-control FMS.

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